Introduction of the geography of Martinique
Martinique is an island in the eastern part of the arc of the Lesser and Greater Antilles, arc that separates the Caribbean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean.
It is located at 14.38° N and 61.2° 2W at 4038mi from metropolitan France. The French department is located between the island of Dominica in the North and St. Lucia in the South in the Lesser Antilles.
Modest in size, 1 100 km² , the island is only 64 km long and 24 km wide.
It offers a variety of landscapes : steep mountains, green hills, jagged cliffs, quiet beaches, etc.
The relief of Martinique
Like many of the neighboring islands, Martinique is a mountainous relief and has a variety of original and amazing landscapes for an island essentially volcanic. They are organized around a number of units corresponding to the mass placed along the major axis of the island : NNW-SSE.
There are 3 major topographical areas Martinique :
- The "North" is a volcanic area, hilly and lush consisted of recent volcanoes : Mount Pelee, which rises to 1397 meters and the Pitons du Carbet which at least three (in 5) exceed 1000 meters. This mountainous area is home to a complex orographic mountain system due to erosion and drainage. This is the area of the rainforest but also to the mist and rain. On the windward side, the relief softened regularly to the sea with large areas suitable for crops.
- The "Center" is the area of the plains. The most important is the vast alluvial plain of Lamentin.
- The "South" which is the more level portion of the island and is therefore the driest part of the island. Its highest point is Mount Vauclin, not exceeding 504 meters. This mountain is an ancient volcano smoothed by erosion and remain only hills or hillocks.